Pristine Grace

TULIP Scriptural References
Part 3
Limited Atonement
TULIP Scriptural References

God's justice must be absolutely satisfied because of sin.   Adam is representative of God's people - fallen in sin.  Adam stood before God as a representative of God's elect. When he sinned, it was a picture of how all of God's people sin. As a result, God's elect have need of a savior.

Genesis 2:16-17, (NASB), The Lord God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die." 

Genesis 3:6-7a, (NASB), When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked . . .

Genesis 3:22-24, (NASB), Then the Lord God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever" therefore the Lord God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life. 

Romans 3:22b-23, (NASB), . . . there is no distinction; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 

Romans 5:12-14, (NASB), Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. 

Romans 6:23, (NASB), For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

1 Corinthians 15:21-22, (NASB), For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive

God's justice must be absolutely satisfied and is absolutely necessary because of the character, nature and attributes of God. His holiness and justice are infinite and immutable, and must be fully satisfied before man's guilt for sin can be remitted.

Exodus 15:11, (NASB), "Who is like You among the gods, O Lord? Who is like You, majestic in holiness, Awesome in praises, working wonders?

Psalms 5:4-6, (NASB), For You are not a God who takes pleasure in wickedness; No evil dwells with YouThe boastful shall not stand before Your eyes; You hate all who do iniquity. You destroy those who speak falsehood; The Lord abhors the man of bloodshed and deceit. 

Psalms 24:3-4, (NASB), Who may ascend into the hill of the Lord? And who may stand in His holy place? He who has clean hands and a pure heart, Who has not lifted up his soul to falsehood And has not sworn deceitfully. 

Psalms 93:5, (NASB), Your testimonies are fully confirmed; Holiness befits Your house, O Lord, forevermore.

Isaiah 59:1-2, (NASB), Behold, the Lord's hand is not so short That it cannot save; Nor is His ear so dull That it cannot hear. But your iniquities have made a separation between you and your God, And your sins have hidden His face from you so that He does not hear. 

Ezekiel 36:23, (NASB), "I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the Lord," declares the Lord God, "when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight.

Habakkuk 1:13, (NASB), Your eyes are too pure to approve evil, And You can not look on wickedness with favor. Why do You look with favor On those who deal treacherously? Why are You silent when the wicked swallow up Those more righteous than they?

Heb 12:14, (NASB), Pursue peace with all men, and the sanctification without which no one will see the Lord.

God's justice must be absolutely satisfied because fallen man is a debtor to the laws of God. All of Adam's elect descendants cannot render the perfect obedience that God's righteousness requires. The codified system of rules and regulations imposed at Sinai served to further demonstrate this moral inability and to add to the sinner's debt.

Exodus 24:12, (NASB), Now the Lord said to Moses, "Come up to Me on the mountain and remain there, and I will give you the stone tablets with the law and the commandment which I have written for their instruction."

Leviticus 18:5, (NASB), 'So you shall keep My statutes and My judgments, by which a man may live if he does them; I am the Lord.

Deuteronomy 6:25, (NASB), "It will be righteousness for us if we are careful to observe all this commandment before the Lord our God, just as He commanded us.

Deuteronomy 28:58-59, (NASB), "If you are not careful to observe all the words of this law which are written in this book, to fear this honored and awesome name, the Lord your God, then the Lord will bring extraordinary plagues on you and your descendants, even severe and lasting plagues, and miserable and chronic sicknesses.

Deuteronomy 30:19-20, (NASB), "I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants, by loving the Lord your God, by obeying His voice, and by holding fast to Him; for this is your life and the length of your days, that you may live in the land which the Lord swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them." 

Daniel 9:11, (NASB), "Indeed all Israel has transgressed Your law and turned aside, not obeying Your voice; so the curse has been poured out on us, along with the oath which is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, for we have sinned against Him.

Matthew 5:20, (NASB), "For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.

Romans 2:12-13, (NASB), For all who have sinned without the Law will also perish without the Law, and all who have sinned under the Law will be judged by the Law; for it is not the hearers of the Law who are just before God, but the doers of the Law will be justified

Romans 3:19-20, (NASB), Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and all the world may become accountable to God; because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sightfor through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.

Romans 5:12-13, (NASB), Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

Romans 5:19-21, (NASB), For as through the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous. The Law came in so that the transgression would increase; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Romans 7:7-13, (NASB), What shall we say then? Is the Law sin? May it never be! On the contrary, I would not have come to know sin except through the Law; for I would not have known about coveting if the Law had not said, "You shall not covet." But sin, taking opportunity through the commandment, produced in me coveting of every kind; for apart from the Law sin is dead. I was once alive apart from the Law; but when the commandment came, sin became alive and I died; and this commandment, which was to result in life, proved to result in death for me; for sin, taking an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me. So then, the Law is holy, and the commandment is holy and righteous and good. Therefore did that which is good become a cause of death for me? May it never be! Rather it was sin, in order that it might be shown to be sin by effecting my death through that which is good, so that through the commandment sin would become utterly sinful

Romans 8:6-8, (NASB), For the mind set on the flesh is death, but the mind set on the Spirit is life and peace, because the mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God; for it does not subject itself to the law of God, for it is not even able to do so and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

Romans 10:5, (NASB), For Moses writes that the man who practices the righteousness which is based on law shall live by that righteousness.

1 Corinthians 15:56, (NASB), The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law;

Galatians 2:15-16, (NASB), "We are Jews by nature and not sinners from among the Gentiles; nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified

Galatians 3:10-12, (NASB), For as many as are of the works of the Law are under a curse; for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who does not abide by all things written in the book of the law, to perform them." Now that no one is justified by the Law before God is evident; for, "The righteous man shall live by faith." However, the Law is not of faith; on the contrary, "He who practices them shall live by them." 

Galatians 3:19, (NASB), Why the Law thenIt was added because of transgressions, having been ordained through angels by the agency of a mediator, until the seed would come to whom the promise had been made.

Galatians 3:23, (NASB), But before faith came, we were kept in custody under the law, being shut up to the faith which was later to be revealed.

Hebrews 9:22, (NASB), And according to the Law, one may almost say all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.

1 John 3:4, (NASB), Everyone who practices sin also practices lawlessness; and sin is lawlessness.

God's justice must be absolutely satisfied because although the law prescribed various rituals and sacrifices as a means of atoning for sin, none was sufficient to actually satisfy the debt. Sin is an offense against an Almighty God that requires an atonement that the sinner is unable to pay on his own.

Psalms 49:7-9, (NASB), No man can by any means redeem his brother Or give to God a ransom for him For the redemption of his soul is costly, And he should cease trying forever That he should live on eternally, That he should not undergo decay. 

Hebrews 9:9, (NASB), which is a symbol for the present time. Accordingly both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience,

Hebrews 10:1-4, (NASB), For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near. Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year. For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.

God's Absolute Satisfaction which man is unable to render to offended Justice, God, by sending His own Son to die in the elect sinner's place has accomplished once-for-all. Not only did Jesus' vicarious death satisfy the law's penalty for sins, but His perfect and sinless life also established a righteous claim to the law's "do this and live" on behalf of those whom he represented.

Matthew 5:17-18, (NASB), "Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished."

Romans 3:21-26, (NASB), But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus. 

Romans 5:6-8, (NASB), For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.

Romans 5:17-19, (NASB), For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men. For as through the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the One the many will be made righteous.

Romans 8:3-4, (NASB), For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 

Romans 10:4, (NASB), For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.

Galatians 1:3-5, (NASB), Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for our sins so that He might rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, to whom be the glory forevermore. Amen. 

Galatians 3:13-14, (NASB), Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree" in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. 

Galatians 4:4-5, (NASB), But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. 

Ephesians 2:13-16, (NASB), But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. 

Hebrews 2:14-17, (NASB), Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives. For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendant of Abraham. Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people

Hebrews 7:23-27, (NASB), The former priests, on the one hand, existed in greater numbers because they were prevented by death from continuing, but Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood permanently. Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them. For it was fitting for us to have such a high priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens; who does not need daily, like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the sins of the people, because this He did once for all when He offered up Himself

Hebrews 9:25-26, (NASB), nor was it that He would offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood that is not his own. Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.

Hebrews 10:1-10, (NASB), For the Law, since it has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the very form of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year, make perfect those who draw near. Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year. For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says, "Sacrifice and offering You have not desired, But a body You have prepared for Me; In whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin You have taken no pleasure. "Then I said, 'Behold, I have come (In the scroll of the book it is written of Me) To do Your will, O God.'" After saying above, "Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin You have not desired, nor have You taken pleasure in them (which are offered according to the Law), then He said, "Behold, I have come to do Your will." He takes away the first in order to establish the second. By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all

1 John 4:9-10, (NASB), By this the love of God was manifested in us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world so that we might live through Him. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins.

That Christ should provide the Absolute Satisfaction which the elect sinner could not himself render was necessary, not because God was under any obligation to save anyone, but because He determined only this was sufficient to satisfy His uncompromising demands of His own righteousness and justice. In this sense alone, therefore, it can be said that Jesus' perfect obedience to the law and voluntary submission to death was absolutely necessary to the salvation of sinners.

Matthew 26:39, (NASB), And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will."

Mark 8:31, (NASB), And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.

Mark 8:31, (NASB), And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.

John 3:14-15, (NASB), As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up; so that whoever believes will in Him have eternal life. 

John 20:8-9, (NASB), So the other disciple who had first come to the tomb then also entered, and he saw and believed. For as yet they did not understand the Scripture, that He must rise again from the dead.

Acts 4:12, (NASB), "And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved."

Acts 17:2-3, (NASB), And according to Paul's custom, he went to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and giving evidence that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, "This Jesus whom I am proclaiming to you is the Christ."

Hebrews 9:22-23, (NASB), And according to the Law, one may almost say all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. Therefore it was necessary for the copies of the things in the heavens to be cleansed with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 

Though necessitated by the demands of God's justice, the Atonement that God accomplished on behalf of his elect was a free act of his own sovereign will.

Ephesians 1:5-6, (NASB), He predestined us to adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention of His will, to the praise of the glory of His grace, which He freely bestowed on us in the Beloved. 

Romans 3:23-24, (NASB), for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; 

Romans 9:15-18, (NASB), For He says to Moses, "I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion." So then it does not depend on the man who wills or the man who runs, but on God who has mercy. For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, "For this very purpose I raised you up, to demonstrate My power in you, and that My name might be proclaimed throughout the whole earth." So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.

1 Corinthians 2:12, (NASB), Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things freely given to us by God,

The Nature of the Atonement

The "Nature" of the Atonement addresses the question: "What did Jesus accomplish by his life, death, and resurrection on behalf of those he represented?"

  1. Jesus provided propitiation. That is, by his substitutionary death he appeased the Father, putting away wrath and anger and thereby gaining for his people a favorable standing before God.

    Romans 3:25-26, (NASB), whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation [atonement] in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus. 

    Colossians 1:21-22, (NASB), And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds, yet He has now reconciled [propitiated] you in His fleshly body through death, in order to present you before Him holy and blameless and beyond reproach 

    1 John 2:2, (NASB), and He Himself is the propitiation [atoning sacrifice] for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world.

    1 John 4:10, (NASB), In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation [atoning sacrifice] for our sins.
     
  2. Jesus provided reconciliation. That is, his life of obedience and sacrificial death not only removed God's wrath, but actually restored a state of harmony and love between God and elect sinners.

    John 14:27, (NASB), "Peace I leave with you; My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Do not let your heart be troubled, nor let it be fearful.

    Acts 10:36, (NASB), "The word which He sent to the sons of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ (He is Lord of all) 

    Romans 5:1-2, (NASB), Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have obtained our introduction by faith into this grace in which we stand; and we exult in hope of the glory of God. 

    Romans 5:8-10, (NASB), But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him. For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. 

    2 Corinthians 5:18-19, (NASB), Now all these things are from God, who reconciled us to Himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation, namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation. 

    Ephesians 2:14-18, (NASB), For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. And He came and preached peace to you who were far away, and peace to those who were near; for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father

    Colossians 1:19-20, (NASB), For it was the Father's good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say whether things on earth or things in heaven. 
     
  3. Jesus provided redemption. That is, by the offering of His own blood He secured the release of His people from their bondage to sin, to Satan, and to the law.

    Matthew 20:28, (NASB), just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.

    Acts 20:28, (NASB), Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.

    1 Corinthians 6:19-20, (NASB), Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.

    Galatians 4:4-5, (NASB), But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.

    Titus 2:11-14, (NASB), For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us to deny ungodliness and worldly desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age, looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus, who gave Himself for us to redeem us from every lawless deed, and to purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds.

    1 Peter 1:18-19, (NASB), knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ

    Revelation 5:9, (NASB), And they sang a new song, saying, "Worthy are You to take the book and to break its seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation.
     
  4. Jesus provided expiation. That is, in His appointed capacity as High Priest, Jesus offered up Himself as a sacrifice without spot or blemish, thereby atoning once-for-all for the guilt of all those for whom He intercedes.

    Isaiah 53:4-6, (NASB), Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him

    John 1:29, (NASB), The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!"

    Rom 3:25, (NASB), whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed;

    1 Corinthians 5:7, (NASB), Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed.

    2 Corinthians 5:21, (NASB), He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

    Ephesians 2:13, (NASB), But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.

    Ephesians 5:1-2, (NASB), Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children; and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant aroma. 

    Hebrews 9:12, (NASB), and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption

    1 Pet 1:18-19, (NASB), knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.

    1 Peter 2:24, (NASB), and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.

    Revelation 1:4-6, (NASB), John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne, and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loves us and released us from our sins by His blood and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen. 

Prerequisites to Expiation:
The sacrifice offered must be perfect, without flaw or blemish

Leviticus 1:2-4, (NASB), Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, 'When any man of you brings an offering to the Lord, you shall bring your offering of animals from the herd or the flock. If his offering is a burnt offering from the herd, he shall offer it, a male without defect; he shall offer it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the Lord. He shall lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, that it may be accepted for him to make atonement on his behalf.' (O.T. pattern)

1 Peter 1:18-19, (NASB), knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.  The sin of the one for whom the offering is made must be transferred to the victim

Leviticus 16:21, (NASB), Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness. 

Isaiah 53:4-6, (NASB), Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him

John 1:29, (NASB), The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!"

2 Corinthians 5:21, (NASB), He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. 

1 Peter 2:24, (NASB), and He Himself bore our sins in His body on the cross, so that we might die to sin and live to righteousness; for by His wounds you were healed.

The victim's blood must be shed; the sacrifice must die

Leviticus 17:11, (NASB), 'For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement.' 

Romans 5:9, (NASB), Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from the wrath of God through Him. 

1 Corinthians 10:16, (NASB), Is not the cup of blessing which we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread which we break a sharing in the body of Christ? 

Ephesians 1:7, (NASB), In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of His grace 

Ephesians 2:13, (NASB), But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ

Hebrews 9:12, (NASB), and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. 

Hebrews 9:22, (NASB), And according to the Law, one may almost say all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.

The blood of the victim must be sprinkled on the Altar

Leviticus 3:2, (NASB), He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and slay it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood around on the altar. (O.T. pattern)

Hebrews 10:19-22, (NASB), Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkledclean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. 

Hebrews 12:22-24, (NASB), But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to myriads of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood, which speaks better than the blood of Abel. 

1 Peter 1:1-2, (NASB), Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure.  

The Extent of the Atonement The "Extent" of Christ's atonement addresses the question: "For whom did the Father "give" his only Son? For whom was Jesus' substitutionary life of obedience to the law intended? For whom did Jesus offer his own life as sacrifice for sin? For whom did he rise from the dead as evidence of his Father's satisfaction with his life and death? For whom does he now interced? For whom is the promise of his return and teh hope of glory intended? The mission and death of Christ are restricted to a limited number -- to his people [1], his sheep [2], his friends [3], his Church [4], his body [5]; and nowhere extended to all men severally and collectively."

[1] Matthew 1:21, (NASB), "She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins." 

[2] John 10:15, (NASB), even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep

[3] John 15:13, (NASB), Greater love has no one than this, that one lay down his life for his friends

[4] Acts 20:28, (NASB), Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood. 

[4] Ephesians 5:25-26, (NASB), Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her, so that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word, 

[5] Ephesians 5:23, (NASB), For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body.

Christ was destined to die for none but those who were given to him by the Father. a twofold donation. One of Christ to men, another of men to Christ. Christ was given to men for the purpose of saving them, and men to Christ that through him they may be saved.

Christ given to men:

Isaiah 9:6, (NASB), For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. 

Isaiah 49:6, (NASB), He says, "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth." 

Men given to Christ:

John 6:37-39, (NASB), All that the Father gives Me will come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out. For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me. This is the will of Him who sent Me, that of all that He has given Me I lose nothing, but raise it up on the last day. 

John 17:2, (NASB), even as You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to all whom You have given Him, He may give eternal life. 

John 17:6, (NASB), I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; they were Yours and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word. 

John 17:12, (NASB), While I was with them, I was keeping them in Your name which You have given Me; and I guarded them and not one of them perished but the son of perdition, so that the Scripture would be fulfilled. 

Those "given" to Christ are specifically designated as:

Matthew 1:21, (NASB), She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.

Romans 4:13, (NASB), For the promise to Abraham or to his descendants that he would be heir of the world was not through the Law, but through the righteousness of faith. 

Romans 8:30, (NASB), and these whom He predestined, He also called; and these whom He called, He also justified; and these whom He justified, He also glorified

Romans 9:8, (NASB), That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are regarded as descendants. 

Romans 9:23, (NASB), And He did so to make known the riches of His glory upon vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory

Romans 11:2, (NASB), God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel? 

1 Corinthians 15:22-23, (NASB), For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ's at His coming, 

Galatians 3:18, (NASB), For if the inheritance is based on law, it is no longer based on a promise; but God has granted it to Abraham [cf. Rom 4:13] by means of a promise. 

Ephesians 5:23, (NASB), For the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior of the body

Hebrews 2:16, (NASB), For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendants of Abraham.

"The Extent of Christ's atonement is established by the connection between the atonement and the intercession of Christ. As they are both parts of his priestly office, they must be of the same extent; so that for all whom he made satisfaction, he should also interced, and not make atonement for those who will never have a place in his intercession." - Francis Turretin

1 John 2:1-2, (NASB), My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and He Himself is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world. 

Romans 8:34, (NASB), who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us

John 17:6-9, (NASB), I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; they were Yours and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word. Now they have come to know that everything You have given Me is from You; for the words which You gave Me I have given to them; and they received them and truly understood that I came forth from You, and they believed that You sent Me. I ask on their behalfI do not ask on behalf of the world, but of those whom You have given Me; for they are Yours; 

"The Extent of Christ's Absolute Satisfaction is established by the inseparable connection between the gift of Christ and the gift of the Holy Spirit as these two gifts, the most excellent which God has bestowed on us, are always in Scripture joined together as cause and effect, they must be of equal extent and go together; so that the Son is not given to acquire salvation for any others than those to whom the Spirit was given to apply the salvation procured. No reason can be assigned why the gift of the Son should be more extensive than the gift of the Holy Spirit. It is plain that the Holy Spirit is given to none but the elect.." - Francis Turretin

John 16:7, (NASB), But I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you. 

Romans 8:9, (NASB), However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him

Romans 8:32, (NASB), He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him over for us all, how will He not also with Him freely give us all things? (If God gave up His Son for all mankind, as some teach, this verse would require that He also give His Spirit to all mankind. And yet, it is plain that God does not send His Spirit to any but His elect.)

Galatians 4:4-6, (NASB), But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" 

1 John 3:24, (NASB), The one who keeps His commandments abides in Him, and He in him. We know by this that He abides in us, by the Spirit whom He has given us

"The Extent of Christ's Absolute Satisfaction is established by the superlative love of Christ towards those for whom He died I presume that all men are agreed, that Christ loved Peter more than Judas. It is inconceivable how Christ could love with ineffable ardour of affection those whom, as an inexorable judge, he had already consigned, or had resoved by an irrevocable decree to consign, to mansions of endless woe and despair.." - Francis Turretin

John 13:1, (NASB), Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He would depart out of this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end

John 15:13, (NASB), Greater love has no one than this, that one lay down his life for his friends

John 17:6,12,26 (NASB), I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; they were Yours and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word. (12) While I was with them, I was keeping them in Your name which You have given Me; and I guarded them and not one of them perished but the son of perdition, so that the Scripture would be fulfilled. (26) and I have made Your name known to them, and will make it known, so that the love with which You loved Me may be in them, and I in them.

Romans 5:7-8, (NASB), For one will hardly die for a righteous man; though perhaps for the good man someone would dare even to die. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us

"The Extent of Christ's atonement is inferred from the nature of Christ's suretyship. It imports that He died not only for our good, but in our place. Hence, from the nature of His suretyship, He must assume to Himself all the debt of those whose persons He sustains; and liquidate it as perfectly as if they themselves had done it in their own persons. Can it be conceived that those for whom He died and satisfied in this manner, may yet be subjected to eternal vengeance, and bound to suffer again deserved punishment?." - Francis Turretin

Isaiah 53:5-6, (NASB), But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him

2 Corinthians 5:21, (NASB), He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. 

Galatians 3:13, (NASB), Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree" 

"The Extent of Christ's atonement is established by the fact that Christ did not purchase faith for all men. Christ suffered death for those only, for whom He merited salvation, and with salvation all the means necessary to put them in possession of it, especially faith and repentance, and the Holy Spirit, the author of both; without which salvation is unattainable. That He purchased faith, repentance and the graces of the Holy Spirit, for all men universally, cannot be said; for then all men would necessarily be saved.." - Francis Turretin

Acts 5:31, (NASB), He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. 

Acts 11:18, (NASB), When they heard this, they quieted down and glorified God, saying, "Well then, God has granted to the Gentiles also the repentance that leads to life." 

Acts 13:48, (NASB), When the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord; and as many as had been appointed to eternal life believed

Ephesians 2:8-9, (NASB), For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. 

Philippians 1:29, (NASB), For to you it has been granted for Christ's sake, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake, 

Hebrews 12:2, (NASB), fixing our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. 

Hebrews 12:2, (NIV), Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy set before him endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. 

Additional selected statements by Turrettin on the subject of Christ's work of Absolute Satisfaction:

"Christ, from the mere good pleasure of His Father, was set apart and given as a Redeemer and Head, not to all men, but to a definite number, who by the decree of God constitute His mystical body . . . Christ, perfectly acquainted with the nature and extent of the work to which He was called, in order to accomplish the decree of their election and the counsel of His Father, was willing and determined to offer Himself up a sacrifice, and to the price of His death added and efficacious and special intention to substitute Himself in their room and acquire for them faith and salvation."

"Christ is Jesus, not only because He is willing and able to save, and because He removes all obstacles out of the way of salvation, but because He does in reality save His people, both by meritoriously acquiring salvation for them, and effectually applying it to them."

"Though faith is proposed as a means and condition necessary to the reception of Christ, and the enjoyment of the blessings offered in the Gospel,yet it does not follow that it was a condition to the giving of Christ, since faith itself is a gift of grace and one of the fruits of Christ's being delivered up for sinners. Further, if the giving of Christ rested upon any condition, the condition must depend either upon God or upon man. The latter of these can be affirmed by none but a Pelagian; if the former be affirmed, then it comes to this, that Christ is said to given to us a Savior by God on these terms, taht He will bestow Him on us the condition of His working faith in us; which faith, however He will not give, though He alone is able to give it. How glaring an absuridity! Since faith is a fruit of Christ's death, it cannot be a condition antecedent to His death."

"How can Christ be said to have given Himself a ransom, a price of redemption for us, to obtain for us eternal salvation, to redeem us from all iniquity, and other things of the same kind, which denote not only the possibility, but actual procuring of salvation, if, after all, he only rendered it possible that we might be saved? It represents Christ as saying, I wish to obtain salvation for all, to the end that it may be applied to them, will they but believe; however, I am resolved not to reveal this redemption to all, and to refuse to innumerable multitudes to whom it is revealed, that condition [i.e. faith] which is the only means by which it may be applied to them."

"If Christ died for all, then He made expiation [i.e. sacrifice] for all their sins. He therefore must have made atonement for the sins of unbelief and final impenitence, which prevent man from applying to Himself the redemption provided for Him; and thus they will no longer stand in the way of such an application; for on the supposition of satisfaction having been made for them, they must be pardoned. To this it cannot be rationally objected, that the blessing will be applied, if the condition on which redemption has been procured be complied with. It implies a contradiction to talk of the condition's being complied with, when the unbelief and impenitence are supposed to be final. It is absurd to pretend that Christ died to atone for man's unbelief, provided he would not be unbelieving, but believe; as to say I have found out an infallible remedy for the healing of a blind or leprous man which may be applied on this condition, that he will not be blind or leprous."

The Meaning of "Absolute"

Christ's work of Satisfaction is "absolute" in the sense of being a singular, unique accomplishment

Acts 4:12, (NASB), And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved. [Only means of salvation]

1 Timothy 2:5-6, (NASB), For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony given at the proper time. [Only Mediator]

John 14:6, (NASB), Jesus said to him, "I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me. [Only means of access to the Father]

Christ's work of Satisfaction is "absolute" in the sense of being once-for-all.

Romans 6:9-10, (NASB), knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, is never to die again; death no longer is master over Him. For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all; but the life that He lives, He lives to God. 

Hebrews 7:26-27, (NASB), For it was fitting for us to have such a high priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens; who does not need daily, like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins and then for the sins of the people, because this He did once for all when He offered up Himself

Hebrews 9:27-28, (NASB), And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment, so Christ also, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time for salvation without reference to sin, to those who eagerly await Him. 

Hebrews 10:10-12, (NASB), By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins; but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, sat down at the right hand of God, 

1 Peter 3:18, (NASB), For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; 

Christ's work of Satisfaction is "absolute" in the sense that it perfectly satisfies the righteous character of God. The fact taht God is fully and eternally satisfied with the work of His Son is the clear message of Scripture. The resurrection of Christ is proof of the Father's satisfaction:

Romans 1:1-4, (NASB), Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God, which He promised beforehand through His prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning His Son, who was born of a descendant of David according to the flesh, who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord, 

Romans 6:9-10, (NASB), knowing that Christ, having been raised from the dead, is never to die again; death no longer is master over Him. For the death that He died, He died to sin once for all; but the life that He lives, He lives to God. 

The ascension and glorification of Christ is proof of the Father's satisfaction:

Acts 2:32-36, (NASB), This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear. "For it was not David who ascended into heaven, but he himself says: 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."' Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ this Jesus whom you crucified.

Philippians 2:9-11, (NASB), For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 

The sending of the Spirit is proof of the Father's satisfaction:

Acts 2:32-33, (NASB), This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear. 

Christ's work of Satisfaction is "absolute" in the sense of fully meeting the demands of the law.

Romans 8:3-4, (NASB), For what the Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us, who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

Galatians 3:13-14, (NASB), Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree" in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

Ephesians 2:14-16, (NASB), For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. 

Colossians 2:13-14, (NASB), When you were dead in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions, having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us, which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross

Christ's work of Satisfaction is "absolute" in the sense that it fully meets all the needs of the sinners.

1 Corinthians 1:30, (NASB), But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption.

Colossians 2:9-10, (NASB), For in Him all the fullness of Deity dwells in bodily form, and in Him you have been made complete, and He is the head over all rule and authority; 

Hebrews 4:14-15, (NASB), Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession. For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but One who has been tempted in all things as we are, yet without sin

Hebrews 5:8-10, (NASB), Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered. And having been made perfect, He became to all those who obey Him the source of eternal salvation, being designated by God as a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek. 

Hebrews 7:23-26, (NASB), The former priests, on the one hand, existed in greater numbers because they were prevented by death from continuing, but Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood permanently. Therefore He is able also to save forever those who draw near to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them. For it was fitting for us to have such a high priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens; 

Hebrews 9:15, (NASB), For this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, so that, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.